In the first and the second centuries A.D. bowls like this were widely used in the Roman world. In the next few minutes we’ll see how a with this shape was actually produced. The body of the vessel is formed by gathering glass on the end of a blowpipe. And then rolled back and forth on a metal plate called a marver. This makes the glass perfectly round and concentric with the blowpipe. Then air is blown into the pipe to create a bubble. It’s rolled on the metal arm of the bench to cool the tip. It’s then inflated. After the bubble is blown to its full size, a constriction is created using the two-bladed metal tool called the jacks. It’s at this constriction that the bubble will be separated from the blowpipe, in a few moments. The Roman foot is created, by making an indentation with the jacks, pressing flat the bottom, squeezing the edge of the foot, and then holding the constriction and sucking in through the blowpipe The lower portion of the vessel is given it’s final shape by blowing gently while holding the constriction. The bottom is flattened using another tool. The vessel has to be transferred to a punty, a handle with which it can be held from the bottom while the top part of the vessel is finished. A little bang breaks the constriction. After reheating, the edge is opened using the jacks. And after reheating yet again, a folded rim is created using the jacks, by pushing the glass inward and then lifting it upward. And there is a double thickness at the edge. After a final reheat, the vessel is given its final shape. It can then be broken free of the pontil with a gentle tap. Bowls very similar to this, large and small, were made in vast numbers two-thousand years ago by Roman glass workers.