Hello everyone! I have a new tool, a gas horn. I got it to experiment with Damascus steel, and the most important, I want to try to make a sheet out of this bar. In this video, I will try and make an umbo, this is a piece of iron that is attached to the shield. I’m interested whether I will be able to make a flat sheet out of this bar of iron or not. And then make a hemisphere out of it. If you have been on my channel for a long time, then you know I recently did a video on alternative historians, who think armor was impossible to make during the medieval times, The first steel-rolling mills had appeared no sooner than the 16th century. Alternative historians see the conspiracy in it and build the proof about the impossibility of making armor during the medieval times. If we see the sheet steel, this tells us about two things at once, that they could get the sheet steel in the 15th, 13th century, and there was rolling-mill practice. There were no knights! All of the armor is made by the press-forging equipment, out of alloy steel. Is it possible that there were steel-rolling mills in the 15th century? Where did they get the sheet steel in the 15th century? They were made as souvenirs and placed in halls. There is no armor that has scratches or dents. *This has taken a turn!* Kramols channel: “these guys tear down the historians to shreds”. Researchers vs historians. I don’t trust them, because I often deal with museum exhibits, I often study how the armor could have been made and what armor was there, and I think they could have easily flattened such thick bars of steel with the help of a water hammer in the 14th-15th century. It has worked as a mill, the rod was moved by the river, it was turning, and in the workshop, this rod has lifted the heavy hammer-head on the leaver, which is lifted and then it falls, with the full strength, the heavier it is, the harder it will hit. I’d like to notice that with such heavy mass the effect will most likely be something average between modern forge hammer and modern press forge. As the hammerhead is heavy, the speed increases when it falls, and it hits and presses at the same time. There is an example of such a water hammer in Italy and the Italian master has even made a helmet with it. But he made it out of the thick plate, so he had a 1cm thick plate. The only argument of the alternative history lovers is that such a plate is also impossible to make. Well, I’ll try. I won’t use medieval instruments, I will use a modern gas horn, which could have been replaced by a regular horn on the wool coal in the Middle Ages. And I have a press, which could have been replaced by either a 5 hammer-men or a water hammer. Let’s see what happens. So, around 3.5 hours of work. I have this thin pancake, I didn’t measure the thickness yet. around 4 mm by eye. Thinner in some places. Of course, it would be harder if the plate was bigger. But it was the first time I did it and it seems to be working out. If I was making things like this for a year, I would get good straight sheets. Of course there was no high-quality steel during the medieval times, but I don’t think that the medieval masters could not have made the armor, and the only explanation is the reptiloids-mollusks who flew from a galaxy far, far away. And that armor is what is left from the ancient civilization. This is nonsense, what kind of research is this, what kind of historians? What kind of specialists and so-called experts? Strange as it is, this is the moment, where it is easier to forge it by hand. When the material is pressed, it cools down faster. The thinner the material is, the quicker it cools down. Therefore, I lose a lot of heat. And if I hit it with a hammer, I can longer work with one heating. I think there wouldn’t be such an issue with the water hammer because the hammerhead would have been lifted right away. Same as a forge hammer. The thinner the blank is, the bigger the difference in heating. Between thick and the thin parts. For example, if I have the 2 mm thickness somewhere, and somewhere it is 3.5 or 3 mm, then the 2 mm part will become darker faster than 3 mm part. Thick pieces coll down longer. So when I flatten them out with press, I see them and flatten them additionally. So if I see that the area has quickly darkened, I know that it is better not to touch it. And if the area is light or dark red, this means I have to even it out. This helps to make the sheet more even and smooth. Nothing impossible at this point. At the moment I have a pancake-shaped blank, which is thicker in the middle for sure. I didn’t measure it, I know I flattened the edges more. Because I wanted to make a one-piece forged helmet with dishing for a long time. The thing is, currently we make one-piece forged helmets out of sheet steel, thin and even. We use the raising method. Raising is when the sheet is lowered. Dishing is when we work on a pit, hitting on it. This is the most effective way to get volume. Any voluminous shape. This is effective and quick, and raising is time-consuming. Which is why it takes 3-4 days to make the one-piece forged helmet. And I think it would not be logical to make the even piece of steel and then raise it additionaly durig the Middle Ages. I think it would be better to make this kind of pancake, thicker in the middle. And then stretch the middle with the help of the water hammer or a couple of hammer-men and get the needed volume. So, not to make the sheet and then the shape, but to make the shape right away. And I think with certain skill it is possible to get the correct quality consistently. Even thickness on the blanks. Moreover, as we all know a lot of armor parts had different thicknesses. Late cuirasses were thicker on the chest. And I would strengthen the helmet on the top, not on the sides. The strongest blows come from the top. They are not as strong on the sides, mainly, and the helmet dangles and the part of the inertia goes to move the helmet. So the area here does not suffer as much as the area here. This is checked with practice, by tests I made on the helmets. And also we can see where the helmet is most damaged that the guys who fight in buhurt wear. Even if the weapon is blunt, you can see it. Oh, and I also forgot. Look, this is the surface which is characteristic for the hand forging. And here is the picture of the medieval sallet. This is the medieval helmet, around the 15th century. And you can see the same traces of forging. There is no rolling within a mile. Where did the alternative historians get the information that it was made with rolling? Why did these experts not study all of the museum exhibits? Why didn’t they find these pictures and show them to their audience? Somehow this helmet doesn’t seem like it was made with rolling. Why? This is a mystery, the same as why there so many people who believe in this alternative history. So, how to measure the thickness of the sheet forged by hand? I can stretch more in some place or leave a lot in others. I don’t know how they made it during the medieval. But I suggest you can do it with the calipers. I’m sure they had something like this in Middle Ages, I don’t have proof on hand, but I think I saw the engravement with a similar instrument. How does it work? It is just two pieces you can either clench or unclench. By the way, you can also use it like this. Here is the thickness I have in the middle. I think this is 5, no, 4 mm. Maybe 4.5 mm. Let’s see. No, 5 mm. If we can trust the ruler. 5 mm. I have 5 mm in the middle. This is a lot, I need it to be thinner. I’m sure I can stretch this sheet to 2 mm without any issues. This will take some time, but that’s beside the point. But as I said, I dreamt for 10 years to make the blank out of such detail with dishing and to see what happens. Maybe I will do it. And as I can judge from the size, it will not be an umbo, as I thought, but a small skull, helmet on the head. small, but a whole helmet. So, I wanted to get an umbo out of this round bar. But I get this. This is almost a helmet. This is more than I expected, I think I’ll stretch it more. By the way, I realized that I can see well where the material is thinner or thicker. And I cal also say that I can distinguish between 2 and 3 mm. That is because I forged a lot, made a lot of helmets. And even though I’m working more than 10 years, I started noticing the difference in thickness in my first year or year in the half. Because I just tore a blank once. I was hitting a lot and it cracked. So I started to notice, if it is too soft, I shouldn’t hit there anymore. And here as well, I felt where the material is too thick, so I could heat it and stretch without any doubt. And if I felt that it is too soft, I worked with more precision. I got this very small cerveiller. I deformed it just now and I feel that it is very hard. I will raise it some more. This is a great iron hat. This is good. Here on the edge, I don’t know if you can see it. Here. There is some layering. I got it back when I was stretching the bar, I didn’t remove the falling edges on time, so they’ve connected. This is not the steel defect, so don’t think that the steel is layering and this is impossible. Here, everything is possible! I think this is a very promising method of production. If we leave a good thickness in the middle, I had 5 mm, and to be honest, I think it is too little. I should have left 6-7 mm. So I wasn’t afraid to stretch it in the middle, just hit it. It stretches well, when it is soft you can hit it hard. Moreover, if you have a mechanical hammer or water hammer, I think you would be able to make the one-piece forged helmet in one day. You get this pancake and then the helmet is finished in a day, it is quicker than now, where we make the one-piece forged helmet in 4 days. Well, it is a matter to think about. Alternative historians, hello! This is impossible, right? *hate comments* Guys, please, be polite in the comments. If you are a reasonable reptiloid, you are welcome here. If you are an inadequate alternative, you won’t be helped here. You need to go to the therapist.